The Captain had the responsibility for the crew and the boat. All routine tasks were delegated to specialists. The captain conducts all activities and his great task is combat leadership

The captain used the periscope and performed the tactical decisions necessary for a torpedo attack. During the days of U3, torpedo shooting was undertaken with no support from electronics and the torpedo could only run on a straight course. Shooting distance averaged between a couple of hundred metres up to 1000 metres. The hit probability was to a large extent depending on the captain’s skill.

Submarine 3:rd officer at the periscope 1958. Submarine periscope picture
3:rd officer at the periscope 1958. Photo U3 archives.